In the US, AMPS was digitized, that is, digital signal was sent over AMPS using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), resulting in second generation cellular networking. In Europe and elsewhere, GSM (Groupe Spécial Mobile, later, Global System for Mobile Communications) became the 2G standard.

In the early 2000's, with the buildout of GSM networks in the US, GSM became the dominant worldwide technology for 2G, surpassing D-AMPS (Digital AMPS). Using GSM, maximum bandwidth on the 2G network was approximately 56Kbps.